Table of Contents
Collection Overview +/-
Collection Inventory +/-
Box 1: “UTAH TERRITORIAL REFORM SCHOOL AND UTAH STATE INSUSTRIAL SCHOOL HISTORY, 1886-1976”, BY CLAUD H. PRATT (1888-1975)
item 1: Table of Contents and Introduction (pp. 1-3) (unknown)
item 2: 1888-1889, Territorial Reform School Bill (pp. 3-13) (1888-1889)
item 3: 1889-1891, J. Barton Administration (pp. 13-20) (1889-1891)
item 4: 1891-1894, E. M. Allison Administration (pp. 20-24) (1891-1894)
item 5: 1894-1896, I.D. Haines Administration (pp. 24-27) (1894-1896)
item 6: 1896-1905, E.M. Allison’s Second Administration (pp. 27-41) (1896-1905)
item 7: 1905-1909, H.H. Thomas Administration (pp. 41-58) (1905-1909)
item 8: 1909-1914, E.G. Gowan Administration (pp.58-70) (1909-1914)
item 9: 1914-1922, E.S. Hinckley Administration (pp. 70-83) (1914-1922)
item 10: 1922-1923, J.M. Mills Administration (pp. 84-87) (1922-1923)
item 11: 1923-1925, R.H. Hodge Administration (pp. 87-92) (1923-1925)
item 12: 1925-1927, E.J. Milne Administration (pp.92-95) (1925-1927)
item 13: 1927-1945, F.A. Child Administration (pp. 95-116) (1927-1945)
item 14: 1946-1950, H.P. Kilburn Administration (pp. 116-135) (1946-1950)
item 15: 1950-1951, J.S. Jacobs Administration (pp.135-140) (1950-1951)
item 16: 1951-1975, C.H. Pratt Administration (pp. 141-229) (1951-1975)
Box 2: ANNUAL AND BIENNIAL REPORTS, 1898-1974 (1898-1974)
item 1: 1898, First Biennial Report of the Board of Trustees of the State Industrial School of Utah (1 item) (1898)
item 2: 1900, Second Biennial Report of the Board of Trustees of The State Industrial School of Utah (1 item) (1900)
item 3: 1902, Third Biennial Report of the Board of Trustees of the State Industrial School of Utah (1 item) (1902)
item 4: 1904, Fourth Biennial Report of the Board of Trustees of The State Industrial School of Utah (1 item) (1904)
item 5: 1906, Fifth Biennial Report of the Board of Trustees of the State Industrial School of Utah (1item) (1906)
item 6: 1908, Sixth Biennial Report of the Board of Trustees of the State Industrial School of Utah (1 item) (1908)
item 7: 1910, Seventh Biennial Report of the Board of Trustees of The State Industrial School of Utah (1item) (1910)
item 8: 1912, Eighth Biennial Report of the Board of Trustees of The State Industrial School of Utah (1 item) (1912)
item 9: 1914, Ninth Biennial Report of the Board of Trustees of the State Industrial School of Utah (1 item) (1914)
item 10: 1918, Eleventh Biennial Report of the Board of Trustees of The State Industrial School of Utah (1 item) (1918)
item 11: 1932, Eighteen Biennial Report of the Board of Trustees of The State Industrial School of Utah (1 item) (1932)
item 12: 1942, Twenty-Third Biennial Report of the Utah State Industrial School, Submitted by the Utah State Board of Welfare Commissioners (1 item) (1942)
item 13: 1948, Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report of the Utah State Industrial School, Submitted by the Utah State Board of Welfare Commissioners (1 item) (1948)
item 14: 1950, Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report of the Utah State Industrial School, Submitted by the Utah State Board of Welfare Commissioners (1 item) (1950)
item 15: 1952, Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report of the Utah State Industrial School, Submitted by the Utah State Board of Welfare Commissioners (1 item) (1952)
item 16: 1954, Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report of the Utah State Industrial School, Submitted by the Utah State Board of Welfare Commissioners (1 item) (1954)
item 17: 1956, Thirtieth Biennial Report of the Utah State Industrial School, Submitted by the Utah State Board of Welfare Commissioners (1 item) (1956)
item 18: 1958, Thirty-First Biennial Report of the Utah State Industrial School, Submitted by the Utah State Board of Welfare Commissioners (2 items) (1958)
item 19: 1960, Third Annual Report of the Utah State Industrial School (2 items) (1960)
item 20: 1961, Fourth Annual Report of the Utah State Industrial School (2 items) (1961)
item 21: 1962, Fifth Annual Report of the Utah State Industrial School (2 items) (1962)
item 22: 1963, Sixth Annual Report of the Utah State Industrial School (2 items) (1963)
item 23: 1964, Seventh Annual Report of the Utah State Industrial School (2 items) (1964)
item 24: 1967, Tenth Annual Report of the Utah State Industrial School (1 item) (1967)
item 25: 1969, Twelfth Annual Report of the Utah State Industrial School (2 copies) (1969)
item 26: 1970, Thirteenth Annual Report of the Utah State Industrial School (1item) (1970)
item 27: 1974, Seventeenth Annual Report of the Utah State Industrial School (1 item) (1974)
Box 3: Handbooks and Manuals, Miscellaneous (1958)
item 1: 1958, HANDBOOKS AND MANUALS: Philosophy, Policies and general operating procedures of the Utah State Industrial School (1 item) (1958)
item 2: 1974, HANDBOOKS AND MANUALS: Administrative Manual (1 item) (1974)
item 3: n.d., HANDBOOKS AND MANUALS: Employee’s Handbook (1 item) (unknown)
item 4: n.d., HANDBOOKS AND MANUALS: Orientation and Information Handbook for Students (1 item) (unknown)
item 5: n.d., HANDBOOKS AND MANUALS: Procedures for use Of Time-out Rooms (2 copies) (unknown)
item 6: n.d., HANDBOOKS AND MANUALS: Rules and Regulations for Boys, Parents, Guardians and Relatives (unknown)
item 7: MISCELLANEOUS A-C: Assessment of the Administration of Claus H. Pratt, Superintendent of the Utah State Industrial School, 1954-1975 (1 piece 1 item) (1954-1975)
item 8: MISCELLANEOUS D-F: “The Eastwind”, newsletter of The Utah State Industrial School. Vol. 1, no. 1,2,5,8 and 9(5 items) (unknown)
item 9: MISCELLANEOUS G-J: “Good Citizenship”, monthly Magazine published in the interests of juvenile reformation By the management of the Utah State Industrial School. March-April, 1912 and April 1913. (2 items) (1912-1913)
item 10: MISCELLANEOUS K-O: Ninth Annual Oratorial Contest Program, March 12, 1944; Organization chart of the Utah State Industrial School, n.d. (4 pieces) (1944)
item 11: MISCELLANEOUS P: Pay roll sheets for the month of February, 1906; professional staff roster, 1966. (2 pieces 1 item) (1906-1966)
item 12: MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS: Proceedings of the National Conference of Juvenile Agencies’ Annual Meetings, 1952-1956, 1959-1961, 1963-1970, 1972-1974. (20 vol.) (1952-1974)
Box 4: STUDIES AND SURVEYS: 1909, INVESTIGATION OF CHARGES MADE AGAINST UTAH STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENT, H. H. THOMAS (1885-1909)
item 1: OPENING SESSION, JUNE 14: Proclamation of Governor William Spry; reading of charges made by Noble S. Elderkin, Elizabeth G. Bishop and Kate Hilliard. (pp. 1-38) (unknown)
item 2: OPENING SESSION, JUNE 14: Testimony of Mrs. L. V. Halsted, teacher at the Utah State Industrial School, 1905-1907. (pp.39-102) (1905-1907)
item 3: OPENING SESSION, JUNE 14: Testimony of Mrs. Helen Crosbie, grandmother of Robert B. Turner, “inmate” at the Utah State Industrial School, January-August, 1908. (pp.103-122) (1908)
item 4: OPENING SESSION, JUNE 14: Testimony of Mrs. Maude Malan, mother of Hattie Malan Jacobs, “inmate” at the Utah State Industrial School, 1907. (pp.123-135) (1907)
item 5: OPENING SESSION, JUNE 14: Testimony of Mrs. D. T. Tracy, Girls’ matron at the Utah State Industrial School, 1905-1909. (pp. 136-149) Adjournment. (1905-1909)
item 6: SECOND SESSION, JUNE 17: Decision for the Committee and the accused to seek council. (pp. 150-152) (Unknown)
item 7: THIRD SESSION, JUNE 18: Opening statements (pp. 153-159) Testimony of Lamoni Holmes, “Barn instructor” at the Utah State Industrial School, August 1908 to May 1909. (pp.160-236) (1908-1909)
item 8: THIRD SESSION, JUNE 18: Testimony of John Borger, Instructor in house painting, Utah State Industrial School, September 1908 – May 1909. (pp.237-247) Recess. Presentation of affidavit of Mr. Lamoni Holmes (pp.248-251) Testimony of John Borger resumed. (pp. 251-288) (1908-1909)
item 9: THIRD SESSION, JUNE 18: Testimony of Evan Carlson, Blacksmith at the Utah State Industrial School, January 1906 to August 1908. (pp.289-315) (1906-1908)
item 10: THIRD SESSION, JUNE 18: Reexamination of testimony By Mrs. D. T. Tracy. (pp316-385) (unknown)
item 11: THIRD SESSION, JUNE 18: Testimony of Meriah Chatland, officers dining room attendant at the Utah State Industrial School, October 1908 – February 1909. (pp.386-407) (1908-1909)
item 12: FOURTH SESSION, JUNE 21: Testimony of Mary Ann Jackson, cook at the Utah State Industrial School, 1906- 1909. (pp.408-479) (1906-1909)
item 13: FOURTH SESSION, JUNE 21: Testimony of C. R. Hollingsworth, Secretary of the Board of Trustees, Utah State Industrial School, 1896-1909. (pp.480-482) (1891-1909)
item 14: FOURTH SESSION, JUNE 21: Testimony of John Harold Scott, manual training instructor, the Utah State Industrial School, June 1907 – April 1908. (pp.483-549) (1907-1908)
item 15: FOURTH SESSION, JUNE 21: Testimony of W. E. Kneass, Assistant Superintendent of the Utah State Industrial School, 1905 – 1909. (pp.549-558) (1905-1909)
item 16: FOURTH SESSION, JUNE 21: Testimony of Louis Miller, employee [duties not specified] at the Utah State Industrial School, 1907 [?]. (pp.559-566) (1907)
item 17: FOURTH SESSION, JUNE 21: Testimony of Dr. E. M. Conroy, physician and member of the Board of Trustees of The Utah State Industrial School, 1905-1909. (pp.567-586) (1905-1909)
item 18: FOURTH SESSION, JUNE 21: Testimony of Louis Miller Continued. (pp.587-592) (uknown)
item 19: FOURTH SESSION, JUNE 21: Testimony of W. E. Kneass continued. (pp. 593-688) (unknown)
item 20: FIFTH SESSION, JUNE 23: Testimony of C. H. Chandler, Watchman at the Utah State Industrial School, 1907-1908. (pp. 688-714) (1907-1908)
item 21: FIFTH SESSION, JUNE 23: Testimony of W. E. Kneass Continued. (pp.715-757) (unknown)
item 22: FIFTH SESSION, JUNE 23: Testimony of P. N. Griffin, Carpenter at the Utah State Industrial School, 1885-1909. (pp.765-775) (1885-1909)
item 23: FIFTH SESSION, JUNE 23: Testimony of Thomas Meyers, carpenter at the Utah State Industrial School, 19[?]-1909. (pp.765-775) (1909)
item 24: SIXTH SESSION, JUNE 24: Testimony of John A. Ivinson, carpenter at the Utah State Industrial School, 1908. (pp.776-810) (1908)
item 25: SIXTH SESSION, JUNE 24: Testimony of Mary Ellen Dale, teacher at the Utah State Industrial School, 1908-1909. (pp. 811-847) (1908-1909)
item 26: SIXTH SESSION, JUNE 24: Testimony of Edward Bichsel, Ogden grocer and supplier of “pickles and syrup” To the Utah State Industrial School, 1909. (pp.847-853) (1909)
item 27: SIXTH SESSION, JUNE 24: Testimony of Hyrum Olson, “inmate” at the Utah State Industrial School, 1907. (pp.854-861) (1907)
item 28: SIXTH SESSION, JUNE 24: Testimony of Heber Scowcroft, Ogden grocer and supplier to the Utah State Industrial School, 1906-1908. (pp.862-871) (1906-1908)
item 29: SIXTH SESSION, JUNE 24: Testimony of George Shorten, sanitary inspector for Ogden, 1908 – 1909. (pp.871-875) (1908-1909)
item 30: SIXTH SESSION, JUNE 24: Testimony of Lulu Edith Mitchell, teacher at Utah State Industrial School, 1908- 1909. (pp.875-905) (1908-1909)
item 31: SIXTH SESSION, JUNE 24: Testimony of Mrs. T. D. Harris, cook at the Utah State Industrial School in 1893 And 1908. (pp.895-905) (1893-1908)
item 32: SIXTH SESSION, JUNE 24: Testimony of Lulu Edith Mitchell continued. (pp. 905-906) (unknown)
item 33: SIXTH SESSION, JUNE 24: Testimony of Thomas B. Evans, member of the Board of Trustees of the Utah State Industrial School, 1905 – 1909. (pp.907-941) (1905-1909)
item 34: SIXTH SESSION, JUNE 24: Testimony of William Purrington, plasterer employed at the Utah State Industrial School, 1907. (pp.941-943) (1907)
item 35: SIXTH SESSION, JUNE 24: Testimony of L. J. Reeder, Carpenter employed by the Utah State Industrial School, 1907. (pp.943-949) (1907)
item 36: SEVENTH SESSION, JUNE 25: Testimony of Bruce Stevens, printer at the Utah State Industrial School, 1906 – 1908. (pp.950-973) (1906-1908)
item 37: SEVENTH SESSION, JUNE 25: Testimony of Mrs. Mary Colvin, nurse/maid at the Utah State Industrial School, 1908 – 1909. (pp.973-993) (1908-1909)
item 38: SEVENTH SESSION, JUNE 25: Testimony of Dr. E. H. Smith, Ogden physician employed by the Utah State Industrial School, 1907 – 1909. (pp.993-1011) (1907-1909)
item 39: SEVENTH SESSION, JUNE 25: Testimony of Lorenzo Farley, inmate at the Utah State Industrial, 1908 – 1909. (pp. 1012-1036) (1908-1909)
item 40: SEVENTH SESSION, JUNE 25: Testimony Mr. J. Burdette, Utah State Parole Agent. (pp.1037 – 1050) Statements of Parole inmates from the Utah State Industrial School. (pp.1050-1079) (Unknown)
item 41: SEVENTH SESSION, JUNE 25: Testimony of W. H. Ackaret, farming instructor at the Utah State Industrial School, 1905 - 1909. (pp.1080-1097) (1905-1909)
item 42: SEVENTH SESSION, JUNE 25: Testimony of Mary Jane Ives, mother of male inmate at the Utah State Industrial School, 1907. (pp.1097 – 1103) (1907)
item 43: SEVENTH SESSION, JUNE 25: Testimony of Nellie D. Thomas, wife of Superintendent H. H. Thomas and matron Of the boys department, Utah State Industrial School, 1905 -1909 (pp.1103-1140) (1905-1909)
item 44: SEVENTH SESSION, JUNE 25: Testimony of Thomas Meyers continued. (pp.1141-1153) (unknown)
item 45: SEVENTH SESSION, JUNE 25: Testimony of P. N. Griffin continued. (pp. 1153-1160) (unknown)
item 46: SEVENTH SESSION, JUNE 25: Testimony of W. E. Kneass continued. (pp.1160-1164) (unknown)
item 47: SEVENTH SESSION, JUNE 25: Testimony of Mrs. Kate S. Hilliard, member of the Citizens’ Committee and Complainant. (pp.1165-1185) (unkown)
item 48: SEVENTH SESSION, JUNE 25: Testimony of Dr. G. A. Dickson, physician for the Utah State Industrial School, 1908. (pp.1186-1189) (1908)
item 49: SEVENTH SESSION JUNE 25: Testimony of Superintendent H. H. Thomas, Utah State Industrial School, 1905 – 1906. (pp.1190-1208) Letters of Commendation to H. H. Thomas. (pp.1209-1215) (1905-1906)
item 50: EIGHTH SESSION, JUNE 29: Closing arguments and Consideration of all evidence. (pp.1216-1226) (unknown)
item 51: FINAL SESSION, JULY 17: Discussion of subject matter For the report of the Investigating Committee. (pp.1227-1235) (unknown)
Box 5: STUDIES AND SURVEYS 1946, 1959, 1968, 1971, and 1975 (1946-1975)
item 1: 1946 NATIONAL PROBATION ASSOCIATION STUDY: Report on the Utah State Industrial School Requested by Governor Herbert B. Maw to ascertain the Need for improvements (1 item) (1946)
item 2: 1959 GENERAL SURVEY: Utah Legislative Council Survey of the Utah State Industrial School for the period 1939 – 1959 (1 item) (1939-1959)
item 3: 1968 GENERAL SURVEY: Utah Legislative Council Survey conducted by Joseph C. Bentley, Ph.D., Division Of Community and Urban Development, University of Utah (1 item) (1968)
item 4: 1971 GENERAL SURVEY: Study requested by Governor Calvin L. Rampton and conducted by the Youth Development, and Delinquency Prevention Administration, Social and Rehabilitation Service, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C. (1 item) (1971)
item 5: 1975 STUDY: Utah Corrections Task Force and Utah Council on Criminal Justice Administration Project on Criminal Standards and Goals report. (1975)
Biographical Note/Historical Note +/-
Until the early part of the 19th century, there were no public institutions for delinquent or wayward youth, as they were generally called at the time. Wayward boys, along with the homeless or neglected, were sent to jails, prisons, almshouses or work homes. It was not until 1847 that the first state operated juvenile correctional institution was established in Massachusetts. Between 1847 and the close of the 19th century nearly every state followed suit.
Utah, while still a territory, established a juvenile correctional institution in 1888. Receiving both boys and girls, the school was to provide for the “confinement, discipline, education, employment and reformation of juvenile offenders committed to it according to law.” Called the Utah Territorial Reform School, the facility was originally located at 846 20th Street in Ogden. In 1896, the year Utah became a state, this site was given to the Utah Schools for the Deaf and Blind. The Reform School was renamed the Utah State Industrial School and relocated to the grounds of the defunct Kiesel Military Academy at 200 North Washington Boulevard.
Referred to as a Children’s Home, a Social Hospital, and a Special School during its 88-year history, the Utah State Industrial School (S.I.S.) was at various times placed under the jurisdiction of three separate State agencies. From its inception until 1941, S.I.S. was supervised by a seven member Board of Trustees. Five members were appointed by the Governor. Two additional members, the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Attorney General, served as ex-officio trustees. In June of 1941, responsibilities of the Board of Trustees were transferred to the Utah State Board of Welfare Commissioners, a board consisting of three members appointed by the Governor, with the consent of the Senate, for a term of six years. One member of the Commission was designated as the member in charge of institutions, which included the State Hospital, the State School for the Mentally Defective, the Tuberculosis Hospital, and the State Industrial School. In the late 1960’s the Family Services Division of the Department of Social Services assumed control of the school.
The Administrative Officer of S.I.S. was a Superintendent, appointed by the supervising agency. School administration was conducted through a number of operating departments responsible to the Superintendent. Thirteen men served in this capacity between 1888 – 1975: Joseph Barton, 1889 – 1891; E.M. Allison, 1891 – 1894; I.D. Haines, 1894 – 1896; E.M. Allison, 1896 – 1905; Heber H. Thomas, 1905 – 1909; Ephraim Gowan, 1909 –1914; Edwin S. Hinckley, 1914 –1922; John W. Mills, 1922 – 1923; Robert H. Hodge, 1924; E. J. Milne, 1925 – 1926; Frances A. Child, 1927 – 1945; H. Parley Kilburn, 1946 – 1950; J Smith Jacob, 1950 – 1951; and Claud H. Pratt, 1951 –1975.
Shortly after the retirement of Superintendent Pratt in 1975, S.I.S. was reorganized as the Youth Development Center. A continual decline in the school’s population due to the establishment of many smaller facilities throughout the state, some public and some private, resulted in the complete closure of the school in 1983. Services previously provided by S.I.S. and the Youth Development Center were thereafter offered through the Mill Creek Youth Center, a new facility located at 790 West 12th Street in Ogden.
THE ADMINISTRATION OF SUPERINTENDENT CLAUD H. PRATT, 1954 – 1975*
It is a most difficult task to give an assessment of an administration which covers nearly a fourth of a century and a sizeable portion of the total history of the Utah State Industrial School. An administration that spans the terms of three governors, representing both political persuasions, several legislatures, several welfare commissions, a myriad of governmental changes and pressures created by community, staff and students must be considered a significant endorsement in itself.
My first experience with Superintendent Pratt came a couple of years after he assumed the superintendency; on the day I was employed as a group supervisor, November 22, 1954. I was introduced to him in his office and was impressed by his large physical stature which made his gentle voice seem out of character. He welcomed me, was somewhat apologetic that the salary was low, and offered a third floor apartment in the administration building and meals as a supplement. We talked at length about his philosophy of rehabilitating young people sent to the institution by the juvenile courts of Utah. He gave me the principles which broadly characterized his administration. His philosophy included a strict prohibition against corporal punishment, an environment that was friendly, fair and firm; programs rich in earned privileges; and a staff committed to making up the personal deficiencies each young person brought to the agency. He required solid planning and worthwhile learning experiences.
Carrying out the varied administrative activities required by his program fell to six departments: Business Office, Group Living, Social Services and Parole, Education, Medical, and psychology. Each director from these departments met every Friday with Mr. Pratt to discuss treatment plans for students and general administrative problems. [In addition, each department director had a weekly meeting with Mr. Pratt to discuss problems and programs that were his particular responsibility.] After outlining issues, input was sought from each director. A final decision was arrived at only after considerable debate. Once a decision was made, all were expected to support it.
One of the first major issues that came up during these early years concerned the farming and dairy program which had been part of the institution’s legacy for some time prior to Mr. Pratt’s appointment. The decision to divest the institution of its dairy herds, followed a short time by the farming operation and still later the laundry and canning activities, came at a time when the student body population began to swell. These events had much to do with the subsequent direction the agency was to take. It meant first that there were progressively fewer opportunities to provide students with a positive and stable work experience. Although experience in the agency’s “industries” would not, in all likelihood, provide saleable job skills, they were activities that taught important work ethics.
In response, Superintendent Pratt began expansion of the institution’s school program, which ranged from remedial education through twelfth grade. In addition, Mr. Pratt authorized a satellite educational program to be carried out at the parole office in Salt Lake for the younger students. This program was to help them reintegrate into the public schools.
Second, living units placed greater emphasis on the promotion of positive social attitudes and skills. Supporting this effort was the development of rating and counseling methods. These allowed daily assessment of each student’s progress in overcoming social deficiencies. Progress in achieving social adjustment became more of an individual matter for each student.
Superintendent Pratt expanded the school curriculum over the next few years, and ultimately increased the faculty to 26 teachers. During this expansion, he established a joint committee between the institution and the State Department of Public Instruction to advise and assist in directing the school’s ambitious aim of seeking accreditation. This committee, chaired jointly by himself and Dr. Averd Rigby, was instrumental in establishing the procedures to implement an acceptable program for accreditation in 1969. As a result, the institution entered into an arrangement with Ogden City schools to grant high school diplomas for students who completed their high school education at the institution.
The Joint Educational Committee also brought the institution into cooperation with the Vocational Rehabilitation Division of the State Department of Public Instruction. A proposal was developed by Mr. Pratt and Dr. Vaughn Hall, Director of the Department of Vocational Rehabilitation, to establish the Vocational Laboratory Program. This program provided students with access to a wide variety of “work samples” to prepare them for entry into various trades. These included auto mechanics, metal work, carpentry, wood working, plumbing, and electrical work. The goal was not to train these students for an occupation, but to help them assess their interest, aptitude, motivation, and abilities in a variety of areas so that planning and training could be undertaken once they returned to the community. Thus, by the early 1970’s, Mr. Pratt had completely shifted the institution’s emphasis to more clearly reflect the needs of the students.
Youth committed to S.I.S. had long been observed to possess insufficient learning habits. Allowed to persist, these deficiencies promoted a dependence on the social welfare and juvenile justice system. Programs were needed to emphasize independent responsibilities. Mr. Pratt’s expansion of the educational and vocational training program provided the key to initiate this independence.
Drawing on the expertise of consultants and the agency’s clinical staff, and with the support and advice of the citizen advisory board, a program began to take shape. The thrust of the program was three-fold. First, the living units were integrated into the educational effort. As in most families, the home living unit supported the school by encouraging accomplishment for each student to the level of his individual capacity. Incentives were made available, in part, as a consequence of school participation and performance. Previously, nearly all privileges were, by necessity, administered and granted through and by group living staff. Their dispensation was based largely on adjustment within the living units with little or [[no]] input from other departments.
Though this may not sound too different from that which might be expected in an agency such as the Industrial School, it was unique in the following characteristics. First of all, the students themselves were made a part of the planning. Secondly, the precise focus was on the individual and the educational and social behavior problems brought from the community. Thirdly, and most important, it was implemented in a manner that promoted each student’s progressive responsibility for his own social and educational growth and the management of his own behavior. Like a parent, the staff was there to encourage responsible behavior whenever students displayed a readiness to assume it.
The third major thrust sought to help students focus on and cope with “disruptive behavior”. Behavioral definitions were outlined and discussed with each student to make them aware of socially acceptable behavior. Individual and group counseling, and when available, psychiatric consultation were applied when inappropriate behavior proved quite profound or deviant. Weekly reviews were conducted at the unit level, involving the coordinator, student, teachers and members of clinical staff. In order to manage all required information, Mr. Pratt authorized the development of an information system based upon modern data processing techniques.
Towards the end of the 60’s, Juvenile Court Judges began to use the institution’s extensive psychological and social resources for short-term observation and evaluation. It was Mr. Pratt’s view that the institution should try to be of service to other agencies whenever possible, and he requested that departments render assessment services, living quarters and educational support for a short-term program. Resources were allocated for a short-term observation program including social and educational evaluation and complete psychological assessment. There were some disruptions. The 30-day time period required a rather extensive effort on the part of the staff to provide the requested assessments. There were often conflicts between the students committed to the institution and those who were there for 30-day observation. The professional staff also experienced a good deal of frustration over disproportionately large amounts of services allocated to youngsters for whom they had little responsibility. Nonetheless, the program moved forward.
During this same period, the admission rate for youngsters began declining. This was due in part to the Juvenile Court’s use of diversionary programs around the state; curtailment of students admitted on contract from Alaska, Indian agencies and by the Federal Government; and the use of the institution for short-term evaluation. As the admission rate declined, so did the heterogeneity of the students. Students were older, had more extensive contact with the courts and had longer histories of delinquency. Mr. Pratt had anticipated this trend. In almost every annual report, he recommended the construction of a facility to house older, more aggressive young adults. He proposed leaving the unfenced, minimally secure Industrial School to work with the younger, more malleable children.
In the beginning, Mr. Pratt had only to deal with the chairman of the Welfare Commission. As the state’s administrative functions increased, reorganizations of state agencies became inevitable. During reorganization, the Industrial School was placed within the administrative authority of the Division of Family Services, which was a part of the Department of Social Service. Superintendent Pratt thereafter had an additional level of government to work with. The institution’s budget became part of Family Services’ budget, making it difficult to plan and obtain necessary support for the institution’s varied programs. The school’s parole function was also transferred to Family Services. These events slowly shifted many of the prerogatives of the Superintendent to the division of department level and placed decision making in the hands of individuals far removed from the agency. Following his retirement, the role of the superintendent changed markedly, becoming more an expediter of policies with little or no authority to establish policy at the institution level.
Throughout Superintendent Pratt’s tenure, S.I.S. served as a training agency not only for social workers but also for students working towards graduate degrees. At least six doctorial research projects were completed at the institution and literally dozens of masters’ theses. Long before the advent of federal training grants, he argued for and obtained funds to establish a training program in juvenile corrections for student social workers from the Graduate School of Social Work at the University of Utah. Diagnosis was of paramount importance and necessitated complete social, psychological, educational and psychiatric assessment of each student. Treatments involved a wide range of counseling, guidance, education, and vocational training. To assure community follow-up, Mr. Pratt established by the Industrial School and included weekly visits by a placement worker to outlying communities to provide onsite supervision. In-service training was also emphasized. The staff was taught group counseling techniques and teachers were sent to learn special skills at out-of-state training centers.
In addition, various consultants were brought in during the late 60’s and early 70’s. Among these were: Allen Breed, Director of the California Youth Authority; Ogden Lindsay, Ph.D, Professor of Psychology from the University of Kansas; O.J. Harvey, Ph.D, Psychologist and National Science Fellow from the University of Colorado; B.J. White, Ph.D Social Psychologist from the University of Utah. Workshops and consultation dealing with new models for rehabilitation of delinquent youth were sponsored. An early consequence was the establishment of a citizen’s advisory board to determine the future direction of the institution. Citizens comprising this first were: Mrs. Ira Huggins, a long time supporter of the institution; Judge George Ballif, and Mark Allen, Ph.D, Brigham Young University; Edward C. Beck, Ph.D, U.S. Veteran’s Administration Hospital; Jennings Miles Lee, Department of Employment Security; Helmut Hoffman, Ph.D, Weber State College, to list a few.
Superintendent Pratt’s personal contribution to corrections is observed in his selection of chairman of an association comprised of Western Regional Superintendents of Juvenile Correctional Agencies, and the fact that he was sought as a consultant on the development of program developed by the other states. He could always be counted upon to participate with any group examining the problems of troubled youth.
Superintendent Pratt may take pride in a lifetime of dedication to troubled youth. The changes he stewarded provided those youngsters with opportunities to alter the course of their lives. Those who took advantage of those opportunities, and there are thousands, are his best testament.
*Condensed from “An Assessment of the Administration of Superintendent Claud H. Pratt, Utah State Industrial School From 1954 to 1975”. By Richard C. Sowles, Ph.D., 1983.
Content Description +/-
This collection consists of the History of the Utah Territorial Reform School and the Utah State Industrial School, annual and biennial reports, handbooks and manuals, studies and surveys. The collection is housed in the Special Collections Department of the Stewart Library at Weber State College.
The Utah Territorial Reform School / Utah State Industrial School Collection was received by Weber State College as a gift in March of 1983. Processed during the period March – June 1983, it is now contained in eight (8) document boxes and housed in the Stewart Library’s Department of Special Collections.
The Collection was donated by Claud H. Pratt, Superintendent of Utah State Industrial School from 1954 – 1975.
Collection Use +/-
Restrictions on Access:
Open for public research.
Administrative Information +/-
This collection is arranged in chronological order.
Donated March of 1983
Process date March – June 1983
Pratt, Claude H.
Material in English .
Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) grant, 2007-2008
Language of the Finding Aid:
Finding aid encoded in English .
Author of the Finding Aid:
EAD Creation Date:
Finding aid based on DACS
Utah State Industrial School (Ogden, Utah)